## Power Systems Certificate

## Length: 4 Days

## Power Systems Certificate

Power systems certificate is designed by highly educated instructors at SPECTRAMIND in order to provide a specialized training in power system area. The certificate consists of four technical power system areas which is designed for engineers and students seeking to improve their power system knowledge and position themselves for their job responsibilities and promotions.

Our industry and faculty experts at SPECTRAMIND will help you to understand the fundamental concepts of power system in order to tackle the real-world challenges. The power system certificate consists of major topics:

▪ Power systems modeling and analysis

▪ Power quality and design

▪ Power systems standards

▪ Advanced power systems (Micro and Smart grids)

▪ Power system control ( linear and advanced)

The first part of this power system certificate is dedicated to power system modeling and analysis which helps the engineers and students to understand the fundamentals of power systems including the main components of the power system and modeling approach for each components.

Concepts such as: complex power, three phase balanced and unbalanced power systems, phasor and time domain, and per phase analysis will be introduced in the first part. Moreover, general information about performance of generators, transformers, transmission lines, switchgears, and loads are introduced.

In order to attract the audience’s attention, detailed modeling procedures will be described for the main components of the power systems. Next step is to combine the models in order to shape the power system models as a radial system, loop system or a network. The power system modeling and analysis part will also introduce the power flow analysis (DC and AC power flow) and its solution for the power system models, a detailed review of fault analysis, introduction to symmetrical components and sequence networks. Finally, state estimation in power systems will be introduced for the power system modeling and analysis part of the certificate. At the end of the first part, you will be able to understand the main components of the power system, model the transformers, generators, transmission lines and loads, apply different solutions to power flow analysis, conduct the fault analysis and understand the state estimation in power systems.

In the second part of the power systems certificate, the audience will be introduced with the concepts of power quality, power system design and grounding, relaying, protection and energy management systems (EMS). Topics such as: grounding system design, grounding standards, power quality and effect of harmonics, voltage sags, voltage stability, reactive power compensation methods, distribution system design, and fault detection are covered in this part. Moreover, in order to improve the audience’s knowledge in power system protection and relaying, our instructors at SPECTRAMIND will introduce the basic concepts of relaying, different types of relays, fundamentals of protection, and fault monitoring. Finally, the energy management systems will be described in order to prepare the engineers for the third part of the certificate which is the advanced power systems. The audience will learn the modern energy management systems, state estimation review, economic operation of power systems, network security, modern SCADA systems, and the concept of smart grid. By the end of the second part, you will be able to understand the power quality, relaying, protection, stability improvement and energy management systems in power grids.

Third part of the power systems certificate helps you to understand the modern power system technologies and advancement of power electronic devices in recent power grid. This part will help you to update your knowledge about the recent improvements and advancements in power grids in order to increase the efficiency and reliability. The information from the first two parts of the certificate will be combined with power electronic concepts to shape the general power system including the traditional components as well as advanced renewable energy integration technologies. Topics such as: smart grid concept in distribution networks, efficiency and reliability of smart grids, communication technology, components of micro and smart grids, energy storage solutions, standards in micro grid and smart grid design, demand response, and wide area measurement systems (WAMS) will be included in this part. Furthermore, to improve the audience’s knowledge about micro and smart grid control, another section is designed in the third part to introduce the advanced power electronic devices, control voltage source inverters, concepts of peak shaving, load shedding, and demand response in power electronic convert control and hierarchical control of micro grids. By the end of the advanced power system part, you will be able to understand the modern power system components, communication technologies implemented for micro and smart grids and advanced upper level control approaches for converters in modern power systems.

The last part of power systems certificate will teach you the elementary control design for power systems and introduces the advanced control approaches in modern power systems. By learning this part, you will be able to understand the history of control in power systems, concept of power system modeling for control design, feedback control in power systems, open and close loop control systems, location of roots and transient response. Furthermore, topics such as: stability of linear feedback power systems, stability analysis with rot locus method, and frequency response in modern power systems are introduced as the main parts of linear control systems in power system studies. To add more in depth knowledge and to update the control theory for modern power systems including the smart and micro grids, advanced control approaches are introduced too. Topics such as: frequency domain analysis in micro grids and smart grids, impedance analysis in renewable energy sources, closed loop frequency response, least square estimations in power flow studies, Kalman filter based estimation in power systems, state space based analysis and control design in modern power systems, and dynamic phasor analysis for balanced and unbalanced power systems are included in the advanced control section of part four.

By the end of the training, the audience not only will have sufficient knowledge about power system modeling, analysis, protection, power quality, but also will learn the fundamentals of micro grids, smart grids and their advanced control approaches. Although the power system certificate will be issued by taking all the four sections, taking one part will also lead to a certificate for the special area that is taken. The detailed outline for each part is included in a separate link below.

## Audience

The Power systems certificate training is a 4-day course designed for:

▪ All engineers who wants to learn, design, or operate the power systems

▪ Power traders to understand the power systems.

▪ Independent system operator personnel.

▪ Faculty members from academic institutes who want to teach the power system courses.

▪ Investors and contractors who plan to make investments in power industry.

▪ Professionals in other energy industries.

▪ Marketing people who need to know the background of the products they sell.

▪ Electric utility personnel who recently started career in power systems or having new job responsibilities.

▪ Technicians, operators, and maintenance personnel who are or will be working at power plants or power system generation companies.

▪ Managers, accountants, and executives of power system industry.

▪ Scientist or non-electrical engineers involved in power system related projects or proposals.

▪ Graduate students seeking a professional career in power systems

## Power Systems Certificate Training Objectives

Upon completion of the Power systems certificate training course, the attendees are able to:

▪ Understand the basic power system components with their functionality

▪ Design the power system components based on customers demand

▪ Differentiate the modern power system with advancement of power electronics with traditional power systems

▪ Model generators, transformers, transmission lines and loads

▪ Conduct the stability analysis for different components of the power systems

▪ Design the grounding system in power systems

▪ Design the distribution systems

▪ Understand the different types of faults in power systems and fault analysis

▪ Describe the fundamentals of protection and relaying in power systems

▪ Understand the modern power system components and smart/micro grids

▪ Explain the communication technology used in micro/smart grids

▪ Understand the different control levels in micro/smart grids

▪ Differentiate the modern and traditional control in power systems

▪ Explain the advanced control and optimizations implemented in micro/smart grids

▪ Analyze the stability in modern power systems

▪ Implement the control/analysis in real world projects

Power Systems Certificate Part 1: Power System Modeling and Analysis

## Training Outline

Basic Concepts

▪ Review of complex numbers.

▪ Complex power.

▪ Conservation of complex power

▪ Balanced three-phase

▪ Unbalanced three phase

▪ Phasor and time domain

▪ Per phase analysis

▪ Per unit normalization

▪ Change of base in per unit systems

▪ Per unit analysis of normal system

▪ Complex power transmission

Main Components of Power Systems

▪ Generators

▪ Transformers

▪ Transmission lines

▪ Substations (switchgears)

▪ Circuit breakers

▪ Disconnectors

▪ Loads

▪ Constant: Resistive, Inductive, Capacitive

▪ Dynamic: Power electronic and electric vehicle charging

▪ Induction Machines

Transformer Modeling

▪ Single-phase transformers

▪ Three phase transformers

▪ Different connections for three phase transformers

▪ Equivalent circuit model of transformers

▪ Per-unit calculations in transformers

▪ Auto-transformers

Transmission Line Parameters and Performance

▪ Transmission line parameters

▪ Transmission line modeling

▪ Waves in transmission lines

▪ Simplified transmission line models

▪ Power-handling capability of transmission lines

Power System Models

▪ Radial system

▪ Loop system

▪ Network system

Power Flow Analysis

▪ AC power flow

▪ DC power flow

▪ Solutions for power flow

▪ Gauss iterations (Gauss-Seidel)

▪ Newton-Raphson

▪ Fast decoupled solution

Fault Analysis

▪ Definition of faults

▪ Main causes for faults

▪ Types of faults in transmission lines

▪ Fault event sequence

▪ Fault analysis in simple circuits

▪ RMS fault current calculations

▪ Superposition approach for analysis of fault

▪ Common types of faults

▪ Single line to ground (SLG)

▪ Double line to ground (DLG)

▪ Line to line (LL)

▪ Short circuit ratio (SCR) in power systems

▪ Weak AC power system

Symmetrical Components and Unbalanced Operation

▪ Introduction to symmetrical components

▪ Symmetrical components for fault analysis

▪ Sequence network connections

▪ Positive sequence

▪ Negative Sequence

▪ Zero sequence

▪ Sequence network connections for different fault types

▪ Single-line to ground

▪ Double line to ground

▪ Line to line

▪ Power from sequence variables

▪ Generator model in sequence networks

▪ Transformer model in sequence networks

▪ Transmission line model in sequence networks

▪ Sequence model for the entire system

▪ Z-matrix method in fault analysis

▪ Calculation of Z-matrix

State Estimation

▪ Why state estimation?

▪ What are the variables to be estimated?

▪ Effect of noise on measurements

▪ Objectives of state estimation in power systems

▪ Effect of PMUs in state estimation

▪ Basic procedure to estimate the states

▪ Example with DC power flow

▪ Solutions for state estimation

▪ Weighted least square

▪ Least square with updating weights

▪ Least absolute value (LAV) method

▪ Bad data processing and effect of noise

Contingency Analysis

▪ Application of Thevenin’s theory in short circuit calculations

▪ Passive short circuit analysis

▪ AC short circuit analysis techniques

▪ Short circuit analysis for radial systems

▪ Multiple short circuit sources in interconnected networks

▪ Balanced three phase short circuits

▪ Unbalanced short circuit faults

▪ Three phase analysis and estimation of X/R ratio of fault current

▪ Time domain fault analysis in large scale power systems

▪ AC/DC short circuit current calculations

Power Systems Certificate Part 2: Power Quality and Design

## Training Outline

The outline of Power quality and design is mentioned in the following which can be revised and tailored to the client’s need:

Fundamentals of Power Quality

▪ Basics of complex power and power flow in power systems

▪ Introduction to power quality

▪ Concept of power quality and definitions

▪ IEEE standards for power quality

▪ Power quality in utility

▪ Power conditioners

▪ Uninterruptable power systems (UPS)

▪ Electrical disturbances effect the power quality

▪ Equipment performance in terms of power quality

▪ Concepts of harmonics

▪ Effect of harmonics on power quality

▪ Monitoring the power quality

▪ Accuracy of monitoring

▪ Impact of static converters on supply networks

▪ Probability curves in power quality monitoring

▪ Monitoring standards

▪ Case studies in power quality

▪ Flicker

▪ Effect of noise on power quality

▪ Effect of voltage changes on power quality

▪ Transients

▪ Voltage sag

▪ Voltage swell

▪ Effect of unbalance on power quality

▪ Distributed generation and power quality

▪ Troubleshooting the power quality problems

Reactive Power Compensation

▪ Characteristics of inductances and capacitances

▪ Reactive power

▪ Reactive power compensator

▪ Power factor correction

▪ Passive filters

Grounding System Design in Power Systems

▪ Principles of design

▪ Purposes of grounding

▪ Standards to be considered in grounding

▪ Resistance and impedance to ground

▪ Typical ground electrode constructions

▪ NEC-Article 250 for grounding design

▪ System models in grounding design

▪ Designing the grounds for lightning

▪ Impedance measurements for grounding

▪ Grounding arrangement for low and high voltage

▪ IEEE design procedures

▪ Integrated ground designs

▪ Testing the grounding design

▪ Substation grounding design

▪ Safety assessment for grounding design

▪ Effect of grounding on power quality

Distribution Grounding Design

▪ Introduction of grounding for distribution systems

▪ Examples of distribution systems

▪ Voltage levels in distribution systems

▪ Distribution system components

▪ Distribution grounding practices

▪ Calculations for grounding resistance

▪ Safety standards

▪ Computer based grounding design

▪ Ground measurements in distribution systems

▪ Transients in distribution systems

▪ Faults in distribution systems

▪ Isolation transformers for distribution systems

Protection and Relaying

▪ Different types of faults in power systems

▪ Fundamentals of protection

▪ Purpose of using relays

▪ Current transformers

▪ Voltage transformers

▪ Earth fault and leakage protection

▪ Differential protection

▪ Generator protection

▪ Transformer protection

▪ Motor protection

▪ Examples of protections

▪ Testing of differential protections

▪ Transformer earth fault protection

▪ Earth fault relay

▪ Generator relay testing

▪ Stability, reclosing and load shedding

▪ Fault monitoring

Energy Management Systems (EMS)

▪ Modern energy management systems

▪ State estimation

▪ Economic operation

▪ Network security

▪ The smart grid

▪ Modern SCADA systems

▪ Distribution management system

▪ Practical overview

Power Systems Certificate Part 3: Advanced power systems (Micro and Smart Grids)

## Training Outline

The outline of advanced power systems (Micro and Smart Grids) is mentioned in the following which can be revised and tailored to the client’s need:

Introduction to Smart Grids

▪ Definition of smart grids

▪ Environmental issues

▪ Advantages of smart grids

▪ Benefits to customers

▪ Information and communication technologies

▪ Digital sense and control of the grid

Introduction to Micro Grids

▪ Definition of micro grid

▪ Main components of a micro grid

▪ Distributed generation

▪ Electrical vehicles

▪ Car charging stations

▪ Solar panels

▪ Wind farms

▪ Battery energy storages

▪ Grid connected and islanded micro grids

▪ Voltage source converters in micro grids

▪ Efficiency of the micro grid

Challenges Regarding the Smart and Micro Grids

▪ Regulatory changes in smart grids

▪ Utility business models

▪ Effect of loads on smart grids

▪ Cost of generation

▪ Controllability

▪ Interaction between renewable energy sources of a micro grid

▪ Frequency control challenges

▪ Demand response in micro grids

Interconnection of Smart and Micro Grids

▪ Transmission lines

▪ Grid interconnection (grid connected mode)

▪ Protection of transmission line in smart grids

▪ Wide area measurement systems (WAMS)

▪ Communication network in smart grids

▪ Integration of electric vehicle into the grid

▪ Integration of solar and wind farms to the grid

▪ Wireless and wireline communications

▪ Digital sense and control of smart grids

Advance Technologies Offered by Smart Grids

▪ Power saving

▪ Smart meters

▪ Green energy systems

▪ Smart substations

▪ Smart residential networks

▪ Advanced technologies for distribution automation

▪ Advanced metering infrastructure

▪ Could computing and mobile apps

▪ Advanced pricing schemes

▪ Large data analysis

Security in Smart and Micro Grids

▪ Potential threats

▪ Different types of faults

▪ Voltage support

▪ Frequency compensation

▪ Demand response events

▪ Government regulations

▪ System protection

▪ IEC 61850

▪ Cyber security in smart grids

▪ Secured smart grid

▪ Data loss

Advanced Control Architecture in Smart and Micro Grids

▪ Basic control provided by voltage source converters

▪ Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

▪ Hierarchical control of micro grids

▪ Primary control

▪ Inner current controllers

▪ Voltage controllers

▪ Active and reactive power control

▪ Primary droop controllers

▪ Secondary voltage and frequency controllers

▪ Droop frequency controllers in islanded mode

▪ Tertiary control of micro grids

▪ Optimization and cooperative control in micro grids

▪ Distributed optimization based upper level control

▪ Energy management in battery energy storage systems

▪ Control of solar panels

▪ Maximum power point controller (MPPT)

▪ Proportional resonance controller (PR)

▪ Control of wind farms

▪ Control of battery energy storages

▪ Control of electric vehicles

Power Systems Certificate Part 4: Power System Control (linear and advanced control)

## Training Outline

The outline of Power system control (linear and advanced control) is mentioned in the following which can be revised and tailored to the client’s need:

Introduction to Power System Control

▪ History of power system control

▪ Control engineering practice

▪ Examples of power system control

Modeling of Power System Control

▪ Differential equations in power systems

▪ Linear approximation of power system equations

▪ The Laplace transform

▪ Block diagram methods

▪ Simulation of power systems

Feedback Control in Power System

▪ Open and close loop control systems

▪ Sensitivity of control systems

▪ Control of transient response

▪ Steady state error

▪ Cost of feedback control

▪ S-plane root location

▪ Transient response in power systems

▪ Performance indices

▪ Simplification of linear models of power systems

Stability of Linear Feedback Power System

▪ Concept of stability in power systems

▪ Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion

▪ Relative stability of feedback control

▪ Root locations in s-plane

Root locus Method in Power System Studies

▪ Root locus concept

▪ Examples of root locus in power system studies

▪ Parameter design by root locus method

▪ Sensitivity analysis

Frequency Response in Modern Power System

▪ Frequency response method

▪ Bode and Nyquist analysis for power system studies

▪ Performance specifications in frequency domain

▪ Frequency domain analysis in Microgrids and Smart Grids

▪ Impedance analysis of renewable energy sources

▪ Stability in frequency domain

▪ Closed loop frequency response

▪ Stability with time delay effect

Time Domain Analysis in Power System

▪ State variables of a dynamic power system

▪ State vector differential equations

▪ Time domain stability

▪ Time response and transition matrix

Least Square Estimation

▪ Problem formulation and examples in power system state estimation

▪ Matrix singular analysis

▪ Non-constraint optimization problem

Kalman Filter Based Estimation

▪ The standard regulator problem

▪ Basics of Kalman filtering

▪ Asymptotic properties

▪ Quadratic weight selection

▪ State estimator design

▪ Applications in power systems

▪ Prony analysis

▪ Kalman filtering toolbox

Frequency Domain based Analysis and Control Design in Power System

▪ Introduction to frequency analysis

▪ Applications in electrical resonances

▪ Torsional resonance analysis

▪ Impedance analysis

State Space based Analysis and Control Design

▪ State space model of a linear system

▪ Application to non-linear systems

▪ Matrix analysis in power systems

▪ Dynamic phasor based analysis

▪ Application of dynamic phasor in unbalanced power systems

▪ Dynamic phasor models of induction machines

Optimization in Power System

▪ Problem formulation

▪ Minimizing the generation cost in power systems

▪ Adding the equality constraints

▪ Inequality constraints

▪ Subgradient based distributed optimization

▪ Multi agent system based optimization

▪ Battery scheduling and dispatch