Biology

SpectraMind Academy : Best NEET Medical Entrance Coaching Center in Ameerpet , Hyderabad.

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4 Tracks of courses Avaialble:

2 Years Class room program for 10th to 11th moving students

  • Only 5 to 10 students in a batch.
  • Coverage of the basic and core concept of the subjects (Physics, Chemistry, Botany & Zoology).
  • Classes of 90 Minutes each are designed according to the pattern and level of the NEET-UG and are delivered by our highly qualified faculties.
  • 3 classes for a day and 3 days in a week (M/W/F) classes for Two years.

1 Year Class room program for 11th to 12th moving students

  • Here, Class XII, PCB syllabus target NEET is to be covered. The student is taught the entire portion of class XII along with the important and critical topics of class XI. This course prepares you in right earnest to teach you the ways that are required to take on the NEET at the end of class XII.
  • Only 5 to 10 students in a batch.
  • Coverage of the basic and core concept of the subjects (Physics, Chemistry, Botany & Zoology).
  • Classes of 90 Minutes each are designed according to the pattern and level of the NEET-UG and are delivered by our highly qualified faculties.
  • 3 classes for a day and 3 days in a week(T/Th/S) classes for One year.
  • This flexible program is designed to aid students in their preparation for State exams or board exams also.
  • Comprehensive study material prepared by experts, and updated based on new changes in NEET-UG.

For 12th pass-out students - Medical entrance preparation long term or short term courses available

  • Only 5 to 10 students in a batch.
  • Coverage of the basic and core concept of the subjects (Physics, Chemistry, Botany & Zoology).
  • 90 minutes Class for each subject (Physics, Chemistry, Botany & Zoology) for 4 to 5 days in a week (M/T/W/Th/F)delivered by our highly qualified faculties.
  • SpectraMind Classes provides about 700 hours of teaching and 75 hours of revision.
  • Comprehensive study material prepared by experts, and updated based on new changes in NEET-UG.
  • Well designed exhaustive question bank for complete practice.
  • Weekly test are taken in NEET-UG patterns.
  • Test discussion for each subject after every weekly / phase test.
  • DPP on regular basis for every subject (Physics, Chemistry, Botany & Zoology).
  • Doubt clearing classes for every week, before weekly test.
  • Micro and macro level analysis of marks and ranks obtained by the students after each test.
  • Time management strategies.

3 Months Fast Track Crash Course

  • Familiarisation with the examination trend for NEET.
  • Quick revision of entire course.
  • Develops skills for solving tedious and confusing questions with accuracy, which needs more than one formula or concepts from different chapters.
  • Develops capability of using short cut methods in solving problems in shortest possible time, instead of length and complicated calculations.
  • Improvement in speed and accuracy and Test paper taking s
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SpectraMind Silent Features.

  • Lecture with Demonstration
  • Completion of syllabus within time
  • Personal Attention for each student 1:1 faculty and student ratio
  • Excellent Qualified teachers
  • Excellent Results
  • Teaching from basic to Advanced level
  • Time management- Accuracy and Speed
  • Stress free schedules suiting the need of the students

Start Date :
For CBSE Students: 14th Oct 2019
For State Students: 21st Oct 2019
Batches: Day/Evening
Class Hours : Daily 6 Hours only.
Test : Daily 1 Test
Center: Bangalore, Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Chennai , Kochi,Ahmedabad, Pune , Mumbai,Kolkata ,Delhi.

Biology Chapters for NEET

  1. The Living World & Biological Classification
  2. Plant Kingdom & Animal Kingdom
  3. Morphology of Flowering Plants
  4. Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  5. Structural Organisation in Animals
  6. Cell-The Unit of Life
  7. Biomolecules
  8. Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  9. Transport in Plants
  10. Mineral Nutrition
  11. Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  12. Respiration in Plants
  13. Plant - Growth and Development
  14. Digestion and Absorption
  15. Breating and Exchange of Gases
  16. Body Fluids and Circulation
  17. Excretory Products and Their Elimination
  18. Locomotion and Movement
  19. Neural Control and Coordination
  20. Chemical Coordination and Integration
  21. Reproduction in Organisms
  22.  Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  23. Human Reproduction
  24. Reproductive Health
  25. Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  26.  Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  27. Evolution
  28. Human Health and Diseases
  29. Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  30. Microbes in Human Welfare
  31. Biotechnology - Principles and Processes
  32. Biotechnology and its Application
  33. Organisms and Populations
  34. Ecosystem
  35. Biodiversity and its Conservation
  36. Environmental Issues

Percentage of questions distribution for exam- BOTANY

Unit and Topic Number of Questions Total Marks Weightage Percentage
Biological Classification 3 12 6.00%
Kingdom Monera 2 8 4.00%
Virus 1 4 2.00%
Cell Biology 4 16 8.00%
Cell Division 2 8 4.00%
Mitochondria 1 4 2.00%
Prokaryotic Cell 1 4 2.00%
Ecology 6 24 12.00%
Biodiversity 1 4 2.00%
Biosphere Reverse 1 4 2.00%
Ecosystem 1 4 2.00%
Environmental Issues 1 4 2.00%
Population Growth Model 1 4 2.00%
Stratification 1 4 2.00%
Genetics 5 20 10.00%
Blood Grouping 1 4 2.00%
Genetic Disorders 2 8 4.00%
Mendal’s Biography 1 4 2.00%
Mendal’s Selected Characters 1 4 2.00%
Living World 1 4 2.00%
Taxonomics Aids 1 4 2.00%
Molecular Basis of Inheritance 6 24 12.00%
DNA PAcking 1 4 2.00%
DNA Replication 2 8 4.00%
Genetic Code 1 4 2.00%
Genetic Material 1 4 2.00%
RNA Processing 1 4 2.00%
Morphology 1 4 2.00%
Root Modifiation 1 4 2.00%
Morphology of flowering plants 1 4 2.00%
Fruit 1 4 2.00%
Plant Anatomy 3 12 6.00%
Secondary Growth 2 8 4.00%
Wood 1 4 2.00%
Plant Kingdom 6 24 12.00%
Algae 2 8 4.00%
Angiosperms 1 4 2.00%
Gymnosperms 1 4 2.00%
Life Cycles 1 4 2.00%
Mycorrhizae 1 4 2.00%
Plant Morphology 2 8 4.00%
Root 1 4 2.00%
Steam Modification 1 4 2.00%
Cellular Respiration 1 4 2.00%
Mineral Nutrition-Biological Nitrogen Fixation 1 4 2.00%
Photosynthesis 2 8 4.00%
Plant Growth and Development 1 4 2.00%
Water Transport 1 4 2.00%
Water Transport- Water Potential 1 4 2.00%
Reproduction in Flowering Plant 5 20 10.00%
Embryo Sac 1 4 2.00%
Endosperm 1 4 2.00%
Pollination 3 12 6.00%

Percentage of questions distribution for exam- Zoology

Unit and Topic Number of Questions Total Marks Weightage Percentage
Animal Kingdom 3 12 7.50%
Chordates and Hemichordates 1 4 2.50%
Mammals 1 4 2.50%
Porifera 1 4 2.50%
Animal Morphology 1 4 2.50%
Frog 1 4 2.50%
Animal Physiology 1 4 2.50%
Frog Reproductive System 1 4 2.50%
Biomolecules 4 16 10.00%
DNA 1 4 2.50%
Enzymes 1 4 2.50%
Lipids 1 4 2.50%
RNA processing 1 4 2.50%
Biotechnology 3 12 7.50%
Artificial Vector 1 4 5.00%
PAGE 2 8 2.50%
Evolution 1 4 2.50%
Horse Evolution 1 4 2.50%
Human Health and Disease 3 12 7.50%
Immune System 2 8 5.00%
Infectious Disease 1 4 2.50%
Human Physiology 16 64 40.00%
Circulatory System 1 4 2.50%
Digestive System 3 12 7.50%
Endochrine System 4 16 10.00%
Excretory System 2 8 5.00%
Nervous System 2 8 5.00%
Respiratory System 1 4 2.50%
Sense Organs 1 4 2.50%
Skeleton System 2 8 5.00%
Human Reproduction 1 4 2.50%
Male Reproductive System 1 4 2.50%
Microbes in Human Welfare 3 12 7.50%
Bioprocessing 1 4 2.50%
Industrial Products 1 4 2.50%
Sewage Treatment 1 4 2.50%
Reproductive Health 2 8 5.00%
Artificial Fertilisation 1 4 2.50%
Contraceptives Method 1 4 2.50%
Strategies for Enhancement of Food Production 2 8 5.00%
Animal Husbandry 1 4 2.50%
Artificial Selection 1 4 2.50%

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Detailed Syllabus

CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS

UNIT I: Diversity in Living world
 What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
 Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.
 Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms- classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).
 Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).

UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

 Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).
 Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)

UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function
 Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
 Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
 B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

UNIT IV: Plant Physiology
 Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
 Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
 Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
 Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
 Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.

UNIT V: Human Physiology
 Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
 Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
 Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
 Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
 Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
 Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
 Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).(Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.)

CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYALLBUS

UNIT I: Reproduction
 Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
 Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination- types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
 Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
 Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control- Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution
 Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
 Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation-Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
 Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare
 Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
 Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
 Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications
 Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
 Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.

UNIT V: Ecology and environment
 Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
 Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
 Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
 Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues

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